An Overview of Science
Science is an organized systematic enterprise that builds and develops knowledge in the shape of predictions and testable explanations about the universe. It is not a domain, but is instead a discipline in itself. Although there are people and disciplines that science often overlaps with, for instance philosophy, art, and engineering, they each have their own distinctive place and their own peculiarities.
The theories that underpin scientific methods are called theories. The most common among them are physical laws, namely laws that govern the behavior of subatomic particles and that govern the behavior of large-scale systems such as the earth, atmosphere, and solar and space radiation. It also includes such diverse concepts as thermodynamics, energy, and mechanics. A theory is often a mathematically pure concept; it may be either a physical law or a model that can be tested to provide an explanation for a particular set of observations.
A number of different approaches are used in science, including observational science, experimental science, and natural sciences. Out of these, experimental science is perhaps the most popular and successful, since it allows scientists to make falsifiable predictions. Most of the falsification of predictions comes from the ability of scientists to control variables, such as experimental manipulation of specific systems. Natural sciences, on the other hand, utilize observations of nature, making inferences from the data gathered, and testing these inferences to establish whether or not they are true or not.